Occitania is a region of southern France, and parts of Spain and Italy, where the Occitan language used to be the primary tongue. Occitan, also called "Langue d'oc" (literally "Language of Yes") still survives as a language and it also refers to the culture of the area. Occitan was the language of the medieval Troubadours and the Nobel Prize winning poet Frederic Mistral.
Many thanks to Monique Palomares for contributing the detailed map above and for providing information about Occitan. Mercé!